Cryptography: Meaning, Types, Functions, Drawbacks and Method

The world is now witnessing a huge growth in the use of cryptography. The popularity of encryption can be bestowed to the fact that Bitcoin is rising in recent years. People are getting access to the easy-to-use systems for encrypting the data on the computer. So, there are fewer chances of physical theft. Cryptography is becoming the exclusive concern of tech-savvy people and CIA. Everybody wants to become an expert in mastering cryptography skills.

The general definition of Cryptography in computer science is the security of Information and Communication techniques with its base comprising of mathematical concepts and the set of the rule-based calculations. So, you will get the algorithms for transforming the messages into ways that are hard to decipher.

Cryptography gives confidence in electronic transactions. So, people are using this new method of encryption in case of electronic transactions. It works for the protection of data like the account numbers as well as the amounts for the transaction. There are digital signatures that are replacing the handwritten Signature or credit card authorization. Besides this, there is also the public key encryption also gives confidentiality to the data.

Cryptography meaning

Cryptography is the method of converting an ordinary text into an unintelligible text. The process requires storing data and transmitting data in a certain form. It leads to the protection of the data. So, it involves driving reliability as well as authentication. There are several techniques used in it for securing communication in the presence of third-party entities.

The practical approach of cryptography

Previously Cryptography found its implementation in the protection of the confidentiality of the sensitive messages used for diplomatic and military communication. Based on the traditional approach, Cryptography is now becoming the science of encryption and decryption that lays its primary focus towards the protection of the messages.

Encryption is essential in everyday life especially when it comes to electronic money schemes. So, Cryptography is applicable in real life for the protection of conventional transaction data. It involves amount for transaction, digital signatures, as well as credit card authorization. There is the end to end encryption in every aspect. It boosts confidence in the electronic world. Since there is a rapid increase of electronically transmitted information, it’s essential to pay more attention to Cryptography for the prevention of infringement on behalf of third parties.

Now the use of cryptography is becoming favorable not only in organizations but also with individuals. Due to the expansion of the information economy, there is relevance to the transmission of sensitive information across the untrusted media. Cryptography is now becoming more favorable with the use of high-end techniques.

The relationship between encryption and keys

Cryptography comes with the storage and transmission of the data in a secure way. It can also include the encrypting and decrypting of the data parameters with the use of the encryption schemes. The schemes are customized for symmetric and asymmetric encryption. They will transform the data from the plain to the scripted form and back to it. Symmetric encryption makes use of the public key cryptosystem and the related algorithms. The Cryptography comes with the keys and in many scenarios. They are derived from the numbers, passphrases as well as, passwords.

Primary functions involved in cryptography

There are five primary functions that will fall under cryptography.

  • Privacy and confidentiality ensure that no one can read the message except the internet and receiver.
  • Then there is the integrity that will ensure that the receiver who has received the message cannot alter it in any way from the original.
  • Then, the third category is authentication that involves the process of proving the identity of the creator.
  • The key exchange method refers to the method that uses cipher keys being shared between the sender and the receiver.
  • The non-repudiation mechanism will prove that the sender really has sent the message.

There are also some other secondary functions that are supported by Cryptography. They are as follows.

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Forward secrecy is a feature that protects the past encrypted sessions. It happens even when the server is holding the messages that are compromised. You can get access to this plan by the creation of a different key for its session. there is no involvement of compromise of the single key. The primary objective is that it hosts communications is a reliable atmosphere, then there is perfect security. This is a system that is unbreakable. The ciphertext then converts more information about the plain text for the achievement of the perfect security. You will find the key that has to be at least the availability of the plain text. You will get the availability of the brute force for stopping attacks that are otherwise impossible to withstand.

There is a terrible authentication method where the participants get the exchange of the messages for assurance and authenticity of the messages. There’s never any access to the third party.

The basic types of cryptography

The cryptographic methods can be broadly categorized under three heads. The algorithm or techniques are as follows.

  • Secret key Cryptography makes use of the single key for the decryption as well as encryption.
  • Then, there is the public key Cryptography that uses one key for encryption and the other for the decryption. They are mathematically related but it’s good to remember that one cannot give the inference of one key.
  • The third category is the hash functions that use a one-way mathematical transformation and is hard to reverse. The secret is that users make use of the message confidentiality hashing technology. It is delivering the message integrity.

The public key Cryptography is employed for verification of the authenticity of the center of the message as well as extension of the key used in the secret-key cryptography.

Why is cryptography gaining engagement?

People are always taking interest in Cryptography in a positive way because encrypted messages and data is one of the easiest ways of improving the security involved in Cryptography. In this regard, Cryptography can guard data against exploitation and theft.

It is also easy to implement over the other methods and can provide a range of benefits. Some of them are as follows.

  • Encryption sometimes becomes the legal obligation depending on the industry where you are working. You have to access most of the data and information related to the consumer. Sometimes you have to use encrypted service in this procedure.
  • Along with the email services for complying with the law, you have to make use of cryptography. Cryptography also leads to the defence against theft and crime. The largest data theft in recent times is due to the financial detail hack. To avoid it, it becomes mandatory to make use of the Cryptography that will lead to the utmost protection of the data. So there are no more problems of susceptibility to the theft. The maximum encryption is used in the data for ensuring that it will be locked in one place.
  • Cryptography also delivers maximum protection to human rights. When it comes to human rights, it is of vital impotence to involve humans right based cryptography. You’ll never face problems while using the Internet. Without encryption of the data, there are chances of facing scams and theft.

Working procedure of cryptography

Cryptography takes into consideration the large area of current research. There are algorithms and services that are coming up every month. There is the use of special algorithms for making the Cryptography work. The procedure involves certain elements that can be categorized as follows.

  • Hashing is the oldest type of cryptography and does not take into consideration hiding the contents of the message. It makes use of the algorithm that is produced as a long hash from the existing file. Then, it goes ahead with the verification of the authenticity of the data or programs.
  • There is the symmetric Cryptography that works as a form of encryption with the recipient of the data as well as a sender. Both the sender and the receiver have the same key and they are using both encryptions as well as decryption standards for the data.
  • The third category is asymmetric Cryptography where the encryption uses different data for the encrypting and decrypting of the data. The public key is provided to both the sender and the recipient. There is the involvement of algorithms for encrypting the data and also opposing the code used by individuals for hacking the private key.
  • The last one is the security Exchange with the asymmetric cryptography. It only works for ensuring there are several key exchange algorithm that will make the exchange secure. You will also get for the details related to the same and is being implemented in the modern world.
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Understanding the process

Sometimes the explanation of the Cryptography becomes a bit complicated. But using it is easy. The popularity of encryption has now made it easy to use systems that will give the secured network.

There are a lot of companies that are also offering free encrypted mailboxes as well as making use of the encryption standards for the confidential data.

Encrypting data on the computer becomes a way for guarding against physical theft. You’ll also get the standard services that will encrypt the hard drive. So, the added security is remarkable.

Beyond these steps, there are other ways of using cryptography. It totally depends upon the level of implementation that will suit your purposes. You can also go ahead with the encryption of the file-sharing services that will extend the cryptographic systems to the embedded systems. Such applications are available for security in the workplace or homes.

Reduced drawbacks in cryptography

There are several encryption methods that usually suffer some drawbacks. In this regard, the combined method is a reliable and highly efficient one. The combination of the secret and public key techniques allow fast decryption.

Again, the public key method will offer a convenient and safer way for the transfer of the private key. The combination of methods that is also referred to as a digital envelopes makes use of hashing that will find the application as the means of testing the password reliability. Effective use of methods for encoding the data into the unreadable format can ensure that they will remain safe under all circumstances. Most systems usually make use of the combination of the encryption methods for building algorithms to serve in the long run.

The basic difference between symmetric and asymmetric cryptography

You will get the symmetric cryptography that uses the same key as that of the encryption at the sender as well as the recipient. It makes use of the shared key that both the sender and the receiver here. There is key distribution as a tricky problem and focuses on the development of the symmetric cryptography. You will get the two different keys.

When it comes to the symmetric cryptography used for encryption and decryption, there is every user in the asymmetric cryptosystem that has access to the private and public keys. The private key serves as the secret key at all times while the public key can be available for free distribution.

Symmetric cryptography is generally fast and ideal when compared to the asymmetric ones. So, it will be applicable for encrypting large amounts of data. On the other hand, asymmetric cryptography is slower and can only encrypt the pieces of data that require more than the key size.

Asymmetric Cryptography is specific only in case of encryption of the symmetric encryption keys. It focuses on the encryption of larger blocks of data. In the case of digital signature symmetric Crypto is favorable because it leads to the encryption of the hashes of messages rather than the entire messages. The system comes with the management of the cryptographic keys that are inclusive of storage, exchange, revocation, as well as the replacement of the keys.

Final thoughts

There is a huge growth of internet users in the present times. There are also more and more transactions being conducted online. The essential aspect among them is online payments, internet banking and email services. To maintain the end to end encryption in case of the private and service message scheme it’s of vital importance to make use of cryptography for protection of confidential data and information. Data fall into the wrong hands increases the chances of malware in the entire system. For prevention of this happening, it’s essential to drive network security measures and Cryptography that will lead to the protection of the transfer of personal data.

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